Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes critical disease in humans and animals. Rabies is caused by the lyssavirus and it is transmitted to humans by the bite of a rabid dog or saliva of an infected animal. The word is derived from the Latin word “rhabdus” which means mad. It is also caused by hydrophobia ( fear of drinking water ). Rabies virus also infects animals, birds, plants, etc.
Structure ( Shape ) of Virus
Rabies virus has a cylindrical shape.
Rabies virus Bullet-shaped 180 X 75 nm in inside.
It and is surrounded or conical and others and is concave.
The core of the virus contains RNA ribonucleic protein and RNA polymerase.
Man gets the infection by the bite of a rabid dog.
The virus is deposited in the wound and multiply in muscles and connective tissue and the site of deposit.
It benefits the nerve-ending exoplasm of the spinal cord and finally to the brain.
In the brain, Negri bodies are formed which is into a cytoplasmic round and oval purplish-pink structure with granules.
The virus multiplies in Negri bodies and moves from the brain to other parts including salivary glands.
The virus reaches every tissue and organ including Skin, Cornea, and urine.
The movement of the virus is 3mm and the incubation period 10 days to 3 years.
The incubation period of rabies is of 30 to 90 days sometimes it takes 1 year even when the infection occurs, it depends on where the virus infection occurred.
The incubation period is short and dangerous when the person is bitten in the face or head. Its symptoms are fever, fever with pain, consuming sensation at the injury site or unexplained shivering, sore throat, headache.
When the central nervous system infected it develops furious rabies. Some highlights of furious rabies are hydrophobia, sweating, convulsions.
Who Develops Rabies?
The chances of developing rabies is usually low, but under certain conditions, you are more at risk. Like if you live in a place where there are a lot of bats or are you going to wander somewhere and there is a lot of wildlife there which is more likely to spread rabies. You must bear in mind that if you come into contact with a rabies animal, you should clean the place with soap and water so that it does not spread to others.
How Transmission of Rabies in Peoples?
Rabies virus is transmitted by the wild animal like a bat, wolf, vampire, and these wild animals transmit the virus to domestic animals like dogs, cow, cattle, sheep, etc.
Rabies transmission occurs when the infected animal’s saliva touches or scratch to freshly injured wound or has a chronic wound then there is a possibility of transmission of rabies.
Most people infect rabies by the bite of infected animals or infected domestic animals or rabid dogs can transmit the virus animals to humans. Infection with rabies virus called encephalomyelitis in animals and humans.
Talking about the U.S., Rabies spread by bats to humans and the bats
are the main source of spreading rabies in the U.S.
Which Samples are Collected?
The samples that is collected is from skin scraping and skin biopsy, saliva, or deep throat mucous.
How the Virus Spreads Infection?
The virus enters into the wound site, after that the virus travels very quickly from the neural pathway to the central nervous system and the retrograde axonal is the vehicle of rabies virus to the central nervous system is the vital advance of pathogenesis during regular disease. When the virus reaches the central nervous system then it spreads to other organs. High concentrations of the virus receive by the salivary glands and then the virus spread all over the body.
Cauterization of the wound by direct application on teeth.
The wound is washed in soap and water and treated with ammonium compound venture
or atmos solution of iodine or alcohol and the anti-rabies serum is applied.
Anti Rabies Vaccine
It could be neural or non-neural.
When the virus is isolated from brain cells of animals and inoculated by phenol or
beta propiolactone example semple vaccine and Infant brain vaccines.
These vaccines are prepared by growing virus chick embryo or tissue culture example duck egg vaccine, tissue culture vaccine.
Anti Rabies Vaccine
It is prepared by hyper immunization of horses complete recovery from Rabies is possible through interferons.